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A real global player: Previously unrecognised bacteria may be a key group in marine sediments

Feb 17, 2020
Bremen

From the shoreline to the deep sea, one group of bacteria is particularly widespread in our planet’s seabed: The so-called Woeseiales, which may be feeding on the protein remnants of dead cells. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen and the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ now describe the distribution, diversity and lifestyle of these bacteria in The ISME Journal.

 

The research vessel Polarstern in the Arctic. (© Alfred Wegener Institute / Stefanie Arndt, CC-BY 4.0)
The research vessel Polarstern in the Arctic. (© Alfred Wegener Institute / Stefanie Arndt, CC-BY 4.0)

Marine sediments cover more than two thirds of our planet’s surface. Nevertheless, they are scarcely explored, especially in the deeper regions of the oceans. For their nutrition, the bacteria in the deep ocean are almost entirely dependent on remnants of organisms that trickle down from the upper water layers. Depending on how they process this material, it either remains in the depths of the ocean for a long time or moves back to the surface as carbon dioxide. Thus, sea-floor bacteria play an important role in the global carbon cycle, which makes them an exciting and important research object.

Global players at the seafloor

The “Benthic Microbiology”-team on Polarstern expedition PS85 to the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN. Josephine Rapp (far left), Christina Bienhold (second from right) and Katy Hoffmann (far right) are co-authors of the study, Stefan Becker (second from left) supported the sampling. (© S. Becker)
The “Benthic Microbiology”-team on Polarstern expedition PS85 to the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN. Josephine Rapp (far left), Christina Bienhold (second from right) and Katy Hoffmann (far right) are co-authors of the study, Stefan Becker (second from left) supported the sampling. (© S. Becker)

The research team around Christina Bienhold and Katy Hoffmann from the Max Planck Institute in Bremen and Pierre Offre, who now works at the NIOZ on the island of Texel, has now identified and characterised a particularly dominant group of microbes. “Although these bacteria have been known in the literature for some time,” Bienhold explains, “nobody has paid much attention to them until now.” While the team focused on the role of this group in the deep sea, other researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology investigated its importance in coastal sediments. “Only now does it become clear how numerous and widespread members of Woeseiales are,” Bienhold continues.

An impressive 40 million cells inhabit each millilitre of deep-sea floor – together with a billion other bacteria. In a thimble full of sediment, there are thus about 120 million cells of Woeseiales. “We know of no other group of bacteria that occurs in the ocean floor at such high abundances.“ Extrapolated to the entire deep-sea floor, the worldwide population of Woeseiales would amount to 5 x 1026 cells, the authors estimate. “Considering that these estimates include neither the coastal sediments nor the deep biosphere, these bacteria may be one of the most common groups of microorganisms on Earth,” explains Bienhold.

A group with varied ecological roles

In their study, the authors present an ecological synthesis summarising current knowledge about the diversity and environmental distribution of these bacteria. The synthesis was built upon DNA sequence data, which were deposited in public databases over the last two decades, but also included new data, some of which was generated from arctic deep-sea sediments collected at the AWI-maintained long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN. “The analyses reveal that Woeseiales accommodate a myriad of organisms with varied ecologies,” explains Pierre Offre, lead author of the study. “For example, different species of Woeseiales co-exist together at any location of the seabed, where they probably fulfil different ecological functions. Our study provides a first ecological guide to these fascinating organisms.”

Moreover, the data now available indicate that members of Woeseiales could feed on so-called proteinaceous matter, such as the remains of cell walls and membranes or other leftovers of dead organisms. Considering that proteins are a major source of nitrogen ­– a fundamental nutrient for all life forms – in marine seafloor sediments, the potential ability of Woeseiales bacteria for protein degradation, may be ecologically important for the re-cycling of nitrogen in benthic ecosystems.“ I am convinced that further studies of these bacteria will provide new insights into the carbon and nitrogen cycles in marine sediments,” concludes Offre, who continues investigating these microorganisms to understand the secret of their ecological success, together with his research team at NIOZ.

Tiefsee-Meeresboden am Langzeitobservatorium HAUSGARTEN in der Arktis. Die Aufnahme entstand mit dem „Ocean Floor Observation System“ des Alfred-Wegener-Instituts. (© OFOS, Alfred Wegener Institute)
Tiefsee-Meeresboden am Langzeitobservatorium HAUSGARTEN in der Arktis. Die Aufnahme entstand mit dem „Ocean Floor Observation System“ des Alfred-Wegener-Instituts. (© OFOS, Alfred Wegener Institute)

Behind the paper: Read more about the work be­hind this pu­bli­ca­ti­on in the cor­re­spon­ding blog­post by Chris­ti­na Bi­en­hold and Pier­re Off­re: https://naturemicrobiologycommunity.nature.com/users/348350-pierre-offre/posts/59450-spotlight-on-woeseiales-bacteria-cosmopolitan-denizens-of-marine-sediments

The re­sults pre­sen­ted here were ob­tai­ned wi­t­hin the frame­work of the re­se­arch pro­ject ABYSS hea­ded by Ant­je Boe­ti­us, group lea­der at the Max Planck In­sti­tu­te for Ma­ri­ne Mi­cro­bio­lo­gy and di­rec­tor at the Al­fred We­ge­ner In­sti­tu­te Helm­holtz Cent­re for Po­lar and Ma­ri­ne Re­se­arch, which was fun­ded by the Eu­ro­pean Re­se­arch Com­mis­si­on bet­ween 2012 and 2018.

Fur­ther in­for­ma­ti­on on ABYSS can be found here: https://erc.europa.eu/projects-figures/stories/life-deep-microbes-abyss

 

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Please dir­ect your quer­ies to:

Scientist

HGF MPG Joint Research Group for Deep-Sea Ecology and Technology

Dr. Christina Bienhold

MPI for Marine Microbiology
Celsiusstr. 1
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+49 421 2028-869

Dr. Christina Bienhold

NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

Department of Marine Microbiology and Biogeochemistry, and Utrecht University, Den Burg, The Netherlands

Dr. Pierre Offre

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Dr. Fanni Aspetsberger

MPI for Marine Microbiology
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Dr. Fanni Aspetsberger
 
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